Tag Archives: Project 2: It’s about time

Project 2: It’s about time ~ Exercise 1 Photographs of Movement

In the first post based on this exercise I wrote about some professional photographers work capturing movement. I’ve been doing my best to have a go at capturing some shots of movement or motion using my own camera across the past few weeks.

I’ll be honest the results aren’t spectacular, they reveal that I am still very much learning about practical photography. But it was fun to give these tasks a go, and I learnt more about my camera, ways to use it as I went.

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Exercise 4: Reflections on Photography and time.

Reflecting on interplay between Photography and time:

Is the photography simply providing an authentic record of the artwork – photography as evidence – or is it part of the artwork itself? 

There seem to be a range of interactions with and use of Photography in regard to Land art. In the case of the different artists researched over this project, their approaches sometime differ. For that reason I’ll reflect on their different approaches by referencing particular works of art which are captured through photographs or are contained within the photograph’s themselves.

Northern France/Southern England 1977 Hamish Fulton born 1946 Purchased 1979 http://www.tate.org.uk/art/work/P07350

Northern France/Southern England 1977 Hamish Fulton born 1946 Purchased 1979 http://www.tate.org.uk/art/work/P07350

 

 

 

 

 

 

The above piece, Nothern France/Southern England , by Fulton is I think an example of photography as artwork. I may be wrong but it seems strange to go to the effort of printing it professionally and mounting it for display in a gallery if it’s not actually the art work. Fulton’s work is often concerned with walking, and he has been said to have considered the walk art work in itself. But here I think the physical presence of the photographs in an exhibition must be evidence of the artist considering the photographs as an art form.

Andy Goldsworthy, Japanese maple/leaves stiched togehter to make a foating chain/the next day it became a hole supported underneath by a woven briar ring, Ouchiyama-Mura, Japan (1987)

Andy Goldsworthy, Japanese maple/leaves stitched together to make a floating chain/the next day it became a hole supported underneath by a woven briar ring, Ouchiyama-Mura, Japan (1987)

The piece opposite, Japanese Maple Leaves, by Andy Goldsworthy, is a complex example. On the one hand Goldsworthy’s work is known for being ephemeral, he deliberately seems to create works in nature that are fragile and will last temporarily. Knowing that makes me think that he considers the physical piece the art work, and the Photograph as a form of documentation. But from my perspective the photograph is my only way of accessing the artwork, for the viewer that is the artwork because we can’t go and see that piece in situ, it simply wont be there.

 

 

 

A Line Made by Walking 1967 Richard Long born 1945 Purchased 1976 http://www.tate.org.uk/art/work/P07149

A Line Made by Walking 1967 Richard Long born 1945 Purchased 1976 http://www.tate.org.uk/art/work/P07149

Another example of Photography as evidence is Richard Longs, A Line Made by Walking, a piece so fragile and tied to the landscape it can only be fully seen through a photograph. But in my research, I discovered Long had a process of shifting from seeing Photography as a documentation tool to seeing it as an art work itself. I’m not sure which pieces he would consider as evidence of this shift, but I know it happened over the 1960’s/1970’s.

For artworks which are temporary, in exhibition spaces, or the natural world, the taking of a photograph seems to be used by Long as an extension of the artwork. I’m thinking of one of his more recent sculptures in the Tate; Cornish Slate Eclipse (see image below).

 

Cornish Slate Ellipse 2009 Richard Long born 1945 ARTIST ROOMS Acquired jointly with the National Galleries of Scotland through The d'Offay Donation with assistance from the National Heritage Memorial Fund and the Art Fund 2008 http://www.tate.org.uk/art/work/AR00703

Cornish Slate Ellipse 2009 Richard Long born 1945 ARTIST ROOMS Acquired jointly with the National Galleries of Scotland through The d’Offay Donation with assistance from the National Heritage Memorial Fund and the Art Fund 2008 http://www.tate.org.uk/art/work/AR00703

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Keith Arnatt’s, Self Burial (see image below), is a bit of a crossover between art and documentation. Clearly the piece documents an unfolding event or process. It captures the artist disappearing frame by frame. The pictures were subsequently inserted as individual pictures interrupting a normal television broadcast of WDR a German Television station. The pictures disrupted programmes, twice a day from the 11th of October 1969.

In a commentary on the piece written in the; The Tate Gallery Report 1972-1974 , [accessed 2/06/2016]. Arnatt clearly saw the photographs as integral to the piece, ‘the ‘burial’ was done in order to arrive at the photographic sequence – the photographs are not merely a record’. Of their latter use in television the Artist said ‘Self burial was not conceived with television in mind. Nor did the artist have a particular exhibition in view’.

Arnatt later in the piece seems to point to the photographs having dual purpose by saying that ‘it was intended that the photographs that the photo- graphs should convey the impression that something was happening to me, they really record— stage by stage— the product of a quite elaborate, uncomfortable and lengthy behaviour pattern.’ His interest was in capturing a physical act and the photography was a part of documenting that whilst simultaneously becoming the artwork itself.

 

Self-Burial (Television Interference Project) 1969 Keith Arnatt 1930-2008 Presented by Westdeutsches Fernsehen 1973 http://www.tate.org.uk/art/work/T01747

Self-Burial (Television Interference Project) 1969 Keith Arnatt 1930-2008 Presented by Westdeutsches Fernsehen 1973 http://www.tate.org.uk/art/work/T01747

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I’ll leave my thoughts here, and move on to the next section…

Project 2: Documenting Journeys – Research pt. 2

Alec Soth’s Sleeping by the Mississippi

I wanted to give a little bit of space to give my own thoughts on the series of Photographs before commenting on the research I did by reading interviews and articles/books which mentioned Sloth’s work.

It’s worth me mentioning I haven’t seen the Photobook Sloth created for his series, Sleeping by the Mississippi, I have only seen the photos online through the Magnum Photography site linked to earlier. I was unfamiliar with the route the Mississippi river takes so found a map online (the featured image), to help me get a sense of the breadth of the journey. There are a number of images in the series (51 on the Magnum site), I won’t comment on all of them individually, instead I will refer to some as examples of the whole.

Although these Photographs are object or art  alone, they seem to me to be best understood together. Across the series the idea of time is explored in depth. There’s the obvious sense of travel given by the name of the photographs, alongside each is included a town or city/state, so you are aware he is moving from the North to the South of the river. There is also a nod to the passing of time in the changing seasons, if you look across the photographs you can spot different indicators of changes in season or temperature and implied time changes. For examples see Peter’s Boathouse, an snow filled image, and the spring blossoms in the background of ,Rev.Cecil and Felicia.

USA. Winona, Minnesota. 2002. Peter's houseboat. Sleeping by the Mississippi. Copyright: Alec Soth/Magnum Photos.

USA. Winona, Minnesota. 2002. Peter’s houseboat. Sleeping by the Mississippi. Copyright: Alec Soth/Magnum Photos.

USA. St. Louis, Missouri. 2002. Rev. Cecil and Felicia. Sleeping by the Mississippi. Copyright: Alec Soth/Magnum Photos.

USA. St. Louis, Missouri. 2002. Rev. Cecil and Felicia. Sleeping by the Mississippi. Copyright: Alec Soth/Magnum Photos.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The theme of time is also explored in the different times of day/night in which photographs were taken, an obvious example is, Cemetery, which appears to have been taken in the late evening or fading light.

USA. Fountain City, Wisconsin. 2002. Cemetery. Sleeping by the Mississippi. Copyright: Alec Soth/Magnum Photos.

USA. Fountain City, Wisconsin. 2002. Cemetery. Sleeping by the Mississippi. Copyright: Alec Soth/Magnum Photos.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A different angle, is the exploration of the passing of time seen in lonely or abandoned buildings. There’s a sense of these places being at the mercy of the elements or just fading over time, but there’s also these clues to another time, a past life, objects or pictures, that remain are made a focus of these photographs. We are left curious as to who occupied these spaces, what went on in them, what will their future be? An example is, New Orleans (see photo below).

NEW ORLEANS-2002. Sleeping by the Mississippi. Copyright: Alec Soth/Magnum Photos.

NEW ORLEANS-2002. Sleeping by the Mississippi. Copyright: Alec Soth/Magnum Photos.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I’m not sure if this next theme can be included as an exploration of the theme of time or if it’s a separate thing altogether. There is clearly an emphasis on the different people met along the journey. The people we are presented through the photographs, are not ‘ordinary’, Soth is drawn to people who seem to be intriguing, sad, different or eccentric. But he doesn’t seem to create photo’s which have a critical or hash gaze, these are not like Dianne Arbus’s photographs. He seems to look compassionately or empathetically, capturing people as they really are, not exaggerating their state or situation but also not trying to gloss over it. A very striking photograph, Sunshine, focuses on a woman lying on a bed wearing a bikini, she has the saddest gaze straight back at the camera lens. The assumed conclusion here is that the lady is a prostitute (this is confirmed in a interview with Soth, featured later in this post). But there is no sense of judgement or approval in the photographers gaze here, instead it feels more like an invitation to consider her emotional state, to empathize.

USA. Memphis, Tennessee. 2000. Sunshine. Sleeping by the Mississippi. Copyright: Alec Soth/Magnum Photos

USA. Memphis, Tennessee. 2000. Sunshine. Sleeping by the Mississippi. Copyright: Alec Soth/Magnum Photos

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A very insightful interview in SEESAW Magazine, The Mississippi: An interview with Alec Soth, August 2004 by Aaron Schuman.  This interview seems to cover so much, but a couple of parts really caught my attention. When asked about whether or not he saw the project as a  piece of ‘Social Documentary’, he says he’s ‘not entirely happy with’ the project being referred to in this way. He goes on to explain that, yes it does document people and places along the journey and as such it has a documentary element. But concludes that, ‘there are just so many gaps. There is no picture of lavish river condos in Minneapolis, or sky scrapers in St.Lois. I’m aware of those things but I was shaping my own river.’ This series of photographs is not a tourists scrapbook, hastily made snapshots of beloved landmarks or favourite meals or moments. It is his exploration of the parts of places, people, buildings along the journey which capture his attention most. When asked about how he picks his subject or theme for a photograph he replied, ‘To find pictures, I just try to stay attentive to my curiosity. If something makes me turn my head I try to follow up on that’.

In the book, The Photograph As Contemporary Art by Charlotte Cotton, the series, Sleeping by the Mississippi is mentioned briefly, and his work in general. She says, ‘Soth’s photographs contain an element of the ‘deadpan’ aesthetic…as well as the conventions of the nineteenth- and early twentieth-century  portraiture, demonstrating that contemporary art photography draws on a range of traditions, both artistic and vernacular and reconfigures them’, (p.15 Cotton 2014).

Reading this comment on his work, I’m aware that I need to continue reading my textbooks in order to understand what is meant by ‘the deadpan aesthetic’ in contemporary art photography!

One final piece of research; an article written by Mick Brown for The Telegraph Online, Alec Soth: One of America’s Greatest Photographers. 

I will finish my research there!!

 

Project 2: Documenting Journeys ~ Research

Documentary Photography ~ ‘Photographs about something rather than photographs of something’.

Examples of documenting a journey:

Paul Graham’s A1 Project

In 1981, Paul Graham began working his way up the A1 road, northwards, documenting his journey, through photographs as he went. The collection went on to be published in 1983 as the, ‘A1: The Great North Road’.

When I first saw the images (with no knowledge of Graham’s work or background), I thought they might be a series of photographs from America, but they did seem a little lack lustre, they didn’t have the gloss or neon signs of America.

I then found an article by Alastair Sooke, writing for The Telegraph Online, ‘Paul Graham retrospective, Whitechapel Gallery review’.  What this article made plain for me was that these photographs were a British take or alternative of an American Idea. Photographers in America had been producing documentary style photographs, particularly featuring roads, diners, evoking the freedom of travel for decades. Graham’s work is ‘British’ in it’s approach to this style of photography, he captures English countryside, road-side cafe’s in the rain and lorry drivers drinking tea in tiered looking service stations.

I found a helpful video, put together by The Photobook Club on vimeo, ‘Paul Graham A1: The Great North Road, which is a video flicking through a photo book Graham created for the collection of images. They also left a handy link to the Whitechapel Gallery Retrospective of Paul Graham Educational Resource, which in turn gave further insight into the A1 Project.

The Whitechapel Gallery education resource makes clear the artistic context in which his work was received. The collection was one of the first large body’s of work produced in full colour at the time, and was considered controversial as a result. Apparently the subjects he chose to photograph were traditionally shot in black and white, a supposedly ‘serious’ format. His work demonstrated that colour photography could be used to tell a story, and could even be considered art.

It’s interesting to consider that today perhaps Black and white photography would stand out more than colour – we live in a world saturated by colour imagery.

 

Stephen Shore: American Surfaces

Shore was Graham’s predecessor in many ways. To understand more about this series of Photographs I read a few reviews/interviews with Shore. Firstly; Sean O’Hagan writing for The Observe in November 2005, That was then Secondly; Sean O’Hagan writing for The Guardian Online in July 2015, Shady character:how Stephen Shore taught America to see in living colour.  Thirdly I referred to the book, The Photograph As Contemporary Art third edition, 2014,  by Charlotte Cotton

Quotes from That was then:

Phaidon Publishers book: Stephen Shore’s American Surfaces

According to O’Hagan (2005) ‘ American Surfaces, originally published in 1999’, then republished in 2005 ‘has just been repackaged and reissued by Phaidon in a fetching facsimile of an old Kodak film envelope’, it’s telling that there wasn’t a market for or interest in buying this work earlier.

The work itself was ‘distilled from Shore’s first road trip across America in 1972’, (O’Hagan, 2005). The American Surface was a series of ‘snapshots’ taken in a tourist like manner (albeit with more a more considered eye), whilst visiting Amarillo, Texas. Apparently many view the idea of referring to an art photographers work as ‘snapshot’s’ derogatory but Shore never saw it that way, commenting in an interview;

‘They were made to look like snapshots formally, but not in terms of the subject matter,’ he says. ‘I mean, people do not tend to take snapshots of their dinner. Or the toilet in their motel. Back then, I was more interested in getting that untutored feel that real snapshots have, but are they snapshots? No, not really.’

He said having left New York to travel that he “realised that I should simply keep a visual diary of my travels. I thought that would say just as much about America.”

American Surfaces, was not warmly received by critics in the Art world, quoted by O’Hagan;

‘When my pictures were first shown at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, people hated them,’ he says, smiling now at the memory. ‘The press coverage, what little there was of it, was uniformly terrible.’

Remarkably Shore was ‘the first living photographer to be exhibited at the Met’, and his arrangement of his photographs ‘unframed and arranged in a grid three layers high around the walls’ did little to enthuse or persuade critics of his works value. His work was in stark contrast to the painstaking work of dark room developed photographs, having been ‘made by a machine in the big Kodak processing plant in Fairlawn, New Jersey, and stuck to the wall with double sided tape’ (O’Hagan 2005).  To me his work sounds like something more suited to today’s world, the documentation and production of quick images. It is telling that his work only received greater recognition in the 1990’s and today, ‘American Surfaces is regarded as one of the key works of modern American photograph’ (O’Hagan 2005).

From Shady Character:

Shore also considered the need for time as a tool to make his work more accessible;“I do think about why people are all of a sudden looking at my work,” he told me 10 years ago, “and it occurs to me that it may have needed a distance in time for people to see what I was actually looking at. People need time. It’s much easier to look at the past than to look at the present”, (O’Hagan 2015).

His work exposed the unconsidered, the everyday, and offered it a new vantage point, perhaps elevating it, but in an unassuming way.

 

Robert Frank: The Americans

The Americans by Robert Frank. Different Front Covers.

The Americans by Robert Frank. Different Front Covers.

Robert Frank was a Swiss-born Photographer, his series The Americas 1955-1957 is considered ‘a ground breaking volume’ (Clarke 1997). A Photo Book containing 83 images, it was originally published in May 1958 by Robert Delpire as ‘Les Americains’.

 

It featured a photograph by Frank on the right hand page and a political/social commentary by Alan Bosquet, separated into text on each left hand page.

In January 1960, an American version of the book, ‘The Americans’ was published by Grove Press, New York. Instead of Alan Bosquet commentary the book featured an introduction by Author Jack Kerouac. The book was not initially well received by most Americans, many considered it ‘Un-American’ mostly because it depicted or drew attention to, racial divides, the prevalence of poverty, general anxiety and dis-ease post world war two. In an online article for The Photobook Club, John Edwin Mason, The Americas In Context, writes further about the context (politically and socially), that the book landed in.

The Americans Image 69; Drugstore - Detroit, 1955, Robert Frank. Held by: National Gallery of Art.

The Americans Image 69; Drugstore – Detroit, 1955, Robert Frank. Held by: National Gallery of Art.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Americans 1- Parade-Hoboken, New Jersey, 1955, Robert Frank. Held by: National Gallery of Art

The Americans 1- Parade-Hoboken, New Jersey, 1955, Robert Frank. Held by: National Gallery of Art

The book has an interesting take on the subject or theme of time – the book does not order the photographs chronologically. Instead the photos were organised thematically. The book is divided into four sections, each beginning with an image of a flag and a picture of an aspect of American life.

 

 

 

The Americans 18 & 19 Contact Sheet, New Orleans 1955,Robert Frank. Part of Guggenheim Collection.

The Americans 18 & 19 Contact Sheet, New Orleans 1955,Robert Frank. Part of Guggenheim Collection.

In the image right are the contact sheets, or film showing some of Frank’s selection process. You can see the red pencil or pen lines around some photographs, some cropping the images to produce a different framing. He is said to have taken around 2,000 photographs and then gone through a lengthy process of whittling them down to the 83 images we see in The Americans.

 

 

 

 

 

I’ve not included many images from The Americans, because I’m not sure about copyright use and don’t want to cause any problems or infringe on anyone. I find it hard to properly comment on the work without actually having seen it in its entirety. But what I will say is that I agree in part with the early observations of Franks work, it is a harsh, bleak look at America. But that doesn’t mean the images in shot were untrue, I think its a clear example of someone brining their mental context to their work. Robert Frank was not an American, perhaps that freed him from any sense of having to be patriotic or any sense of pressure to present an up and coming or wholesome America. He simply shot what his eyes and mind focussed on.

As a final bit of research I read Sean O’Hagan’s article in The Guardian Online, Robert Frank at 90: the photographer who revealed America won’t look back.

I also found a link to the First Draft of Jack Kerouac’s Introduction for The Americans. 

Project 2: Exercise 3 ~ The Image as document

At the start of this exercise we were introduced to the work of Daniel Meadows. A self proclaimed documentary photographer, he has spent the past 25-30 years documenting the lives of ordinary people around Britain using photography and video.

His 1973-1974, Free Photographic Omnibus Project, saw him travelling around Britain in a Double Decker Bus, photographing anyone who was willing and giving them their photograph for free. In this video on his website, he considers what those photographs mean 25 years later (2007), he notes that the photographs he took, have developed a life of their own. Some have been shown around the world, in different newspapers and stories, some remained with their families or the people photographed originally.

I think it’s interesting to consider today where our photographs, particularly those online will end up. With the rise of sites like Instagram, it seems a new breed of documentary photographers has been born. Their images (mine included) are now floating around the internet, perhaps they will travel much further than we imagine, or be completely lost in the sea of similar images.

Family Photographs:

It hadn’t previously occurred to me that my family photographs were actually a form of documentation. I was unaware really of what this meant as a child, I grew up having my picture taken fairly regularly, on holidays, birthdays, family gatherings. Most of these photographs were taken on film cameras (inexpensive ones) and were developed into photographs. I can clearly remember the cardboard box all these photos sat in, inside a cupboard in our hallway. Strangely enough though few of these photos ever made it out of the box and onto the walls of the house. For as long as I can remember the same family portrait photo (taken at some professional studio in the 1990’s), has hung on the wall in the sitting room.

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